Toronto. Those photographers wishing to get closer to their subject than their camera allowed had two choices: an auxiliary lens could be added to the front of the normal lens, or if the lens was interchangeable, the lens could be mounted away from the body using extension tubes, or if money was no object, a bellows.
The remaining issues then where how to focus and how to frame the camera so the subject was in sharp focus and framed without accidental surgery, like missing heads or feet in normal shots. The major camera companies not using an SLR design had lots of options – spider legs, focussing mounts, mirror boxes, tape measures, tables etc.
A tripod or a copy stand was often essential to keep the subject framed and in focus – spider legs or a fancy wire frame could be substituted.